Jews captured by SS and SD troops during the suppression of the Warsaw ghetto uprising are forced to leave their shelter and march to the Umschlagplatz for deportation. [Photograph #26543]
|Date:||Monday, April 19, 1943 - Sunday, May 16, 1943|
|Credit:||National Archives and Records Administration, College Park
Instytut Pamieci Narodowej
Panstwowe Muzeum Auschwitz-Birkenau w Oswiecimiu|
Jews captured by SS and SD troops during the suppression of the Warsaw ghetto uprising are forced to leave their shelter and march to the Umschlagplatz for deportation.
The original German caption reads: "Pulled from the bunkers by force."
The SD trooper pictured second from the right, is SS-Rottenfuehrer Josef Bloesche, who was identified by Polish authorities using this photograph. Bloesche was tried for war crimes by a Polish court in 1969, sentenced to death and executed in July of that year.
The little girl on the left has been identified as Hanka Lamet, who is standing next to her mother, Matylda Lamet Goldfinger (the woman second from the left). The boy carrying the sack has been identified as Leo Kartuzinsky and the woman in the front has been identified as Chana Zeilinwarger. Numerous people have identified the boy in the foreground as either Arthur Domb Semiontek, Israel Rondel, Tsvi Nussbaum or Levi Zeilinwarger, but none of these identifications can be conclusively corroborated
Original caption from donated photograph reads: "The following pictures are copies of the book conaning the report of the German commander who was responsible for cleaning out that ghetto in Warsaw, Poland. This report, in the form of a leather bound book, was presented as evidence by the U.S. prosecution, Maj. Frank Walsh, at the international tribunal trials at Nurnberg, Germany."
The Warsaw ghetto uprising (April 19--May 16, 1943) was the twenty day battle initiated by the Jewish fighting forces in Warsaw when German troops entered the ghetto to begin the final round of deportations. Having received advanced warning of the timing of the action, the entire population of the ghetto disappeared into prepared hiding places before the Germans arrived. Non-compliance with orders to assemble for deportation was accompanied by hit and run attacks on German units, which forced their temporary withdrawal from the ghetto. After several days of clashes with resistance fighters, the Germans resolved to burn down the ghetto and smoke the Jews out of their concealed bunkers. The Jewish resistance, led by Mordecai Anielewicz, held out until May 8, when its headquarters at Mila 18 was discovered and many of its leaders (including Anielewicz) killed. It was another week, however, before the Germans snuffed out the last pockets of resistance. Not having planned for an organized retreat from the ghetto, only a few dozen fighters were able to escape to the Aryan side of Warsaw. This, they accomplished by winding their way through the city's sewer system. Some 56,000 Jews, according to Stroop's report, were killed or captured during the ghetto revolt. Of those who were taken alive, 7,000 were deported to their immediate death in Treblinka. Another 22,000 were sent to Majdanek. Between 14,000 and 16,000 Jews went to the Poniatowa labor camp, and between 5,000 and 6,000 were sent to the Trawniki camp. The Warsaw Jews who were deported to Poniatowa and Trawniki were shot during the Erntefest action of November 3-4, 1943 that was intended to eliminate the remaining Jews in the Lublin district. The majority of those sent to Majdanek were also murdered in this action, but several thousand others, who had been transferred to other camps --including Auschwitz, Budzyn and Krasnik-- after their arrival in Majdanek, were spared. Some of these Jews, who were later evacuated toward the west, survived the war.
The Stroop Report was an album prepared by SS Major General Juergen Stroop, commander of the German forces which liquidated the Warsaw ghetto, to document the suppression of the ghetto uprising in the spring of 1943. Commissioned by Friedrich Wilhelm Krueger, Higher SS and Police Leader in Krakow, and bound in leather, the report was intended as a souvenir album for Heinrich Himmler to celebrate the hard won victory, which took twenty days and 1,200 SS, Wehrmacht, and police troops to accomplish. The Stroop Report consists of three parts: an introduction and summary of SS operations, a collection of daily communiques, and a series of approximately 52 photographs. Three albums were prepared for Himmler, Krueger and Stroop, all of which were recovered after the war. One of them was introduced as evidence at the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg and later published under the title, "The Stroop Report." The albums --which bear slight discrepancies in the number of photos they contain-- are currently located at the National Archives (Washington), the Bundesarchiv (Koblenz), and the Institute of National Remembrance (Warsaw).
GHETTOS (MAJOR) -- WARSAW (Poland) -- Uprising/Suppression -- Stroop Report
UPRISING (GHETTO WARSAW)
UPRISING (GHETTO WARSAW BOY)
CHILDREN (4-12 YEARS)